Analysis performed by the NRC

  • Confirmation of bacterial identification to species level using MALDI-TOF MS

  • Screening of antimicrobial resistance mechanisms by in vitro susceptibility testing to 16 antimicrobial drugs using disc diffusion
  • Determination of MICs by broth microdilution method according the CLSI guidelines and interpretative breakpoints

  • Carbapenem hydrolysis-based tests
  • Inhibitors-based combination disk tests:
    • For the detection of ESBL and/or hyperproduced AmpC
    • For the detection of carbapenemase
  • Extended susceptibility disk diffusion testing against aminoglycosides for the detection of 16S rRNA methylases

  • Loop mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) targeting NDM, VIM, OXA-48, OXA-181, KPC and CTX-M group 1 and 9
  • Immunochromatographic detection of carbapenemase (OXA-48, KPC, VIM and NDM) for the Pseudomonas spp.
  • End-point PCR simplex or multiplex targetting
    • carbapenemases (NDM, VIM, KPC, IMP, OXA-48, OXA-427, BES, IMI, SIM, GIM, DIM, FIM, SMB, SME, SPM)  
    • oxacillinase carbapenemase (OXA-group23, -group 24 and -58)
    • minor ESBL (GES, VEB, PER and BEL)
    • oxacillinase group (OXA-1,OXA-2,OXA-9,OXA-10, OXA-18,OXA-20 and OXA-198)
    • ESBL (TEM, SHV and PME )
    • 16S rRNA methylases (ArmA, Rmt A-B-C-D-E-F-G, NpmA)
    • plasmid-borne quinolone resistance genes (QnrA, QnrB, QnrS)
  • DNA microarray
    • Check-MDR assays targeting ESBL and carbapenemases genes
  • Other genetic characterization methods:
    • Sequencing of resistance genes  and the genetic environment
    • Plasmid extraction by Kieser method
    • Conjugation, transformation and cloning
    • PCR-based replicon typing : method based on replicons (Inc/rep PCR) of the major plasmid incompatibility groups (Caratolli A. et al , JAC. 2010 Dec;65(12):2518-29)

Semi-automated rep-PCR

Pulse-Field Gel Electrophoresis

MLST typing  : PCR and sequencing of 7 house keeping genes and definition of ST according the website

A. baumannii  :

P. aeruginosa  :


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