Analysis performed by the NRC


  • Confirmation of bacterial identification to species level using MALDI-TOF MS

  • In vitro susceptibility testing to antimicrobial drugs by disc diffusion according to EUCAST guidelines
  • Determination of MICs by broth microdilution method according the EUCAST guidelines and interpretative breakpoints

  • Carbapenem hydrolysis-based tests
  • Inhibitors-based combination disk tests:
    • For the detection of ESBL and/or hyperproduced AmpC
    • For the detection of carbapenemase
  • Extended susceptibility disk diffusion testing against aminoglycosides for the detection of 16S rRNA methylases

  • Immunochromatographic detection of carbapenemase (OXA-48, KPC, VIM, NDM, IMP and OXA-23)
  • End-point PCR simplex or multiplex targeting
    • Class A and class B carbapenemases (NDM, VIM, KPC, IMP, IMI, SIM, GIM, DIM, FIM, SMB, SME, SPM)
    • Class D carbapenemases (OXA-48, OXA-427, OXA-198, OXA-23, OXA-24, OXA-58)
    • Major ESBL families (TEM, SHV, CTX-M group 1,  2 and 9 )
    • minor ESBL families (GES, VEB, PER and BEL)
    • plasmidic cephalosporinases (MOX, CMY, DHA, ACC, ACT/MIR, FOX)
    • oxacillinases groups (OXA-1,OXA-2,OXA-9,OXA-10, OXA-18,OXA-20)
    • Plasmid-mediated colistin resistance (MCR-1, MCR-2, MCR-3, MCR-4, MCR-5)
    • 16S rRNA methylases (ArmA, Rmt A-B-C-D-E-F-G, NpmA)
    • plasmid-borne quinolone resistance genes (QnrA, QnrB, QnrS)
  • Other genetic characterization methods:
    • Sequencing of resistance genes  and the genetic environment by NGS
    • Plasmid extraction by Kieser method
    • Conjugation, transformation and cloning
    • PCR-based replicon typing : method based on replicons (Inc/rep PCR) of the major plasmid incompatibility groups (Caratolli A. et al , JAC. 2010 Dec;65(12):2518-29)
    • Multiplex End-point PCR detecting capsular types (K1, K2, K5, K20, K54 and K57) and virulence factors (rmpA, wcaG, terW, iutA, repA and silS) in K.pneumoniae
    • Quadruplex End-point PCR assigning E.coli to the following phylo-groups (A,B1,B2,C,D,E and F)

Typing by NGS

MLST typing  : sequencing of 7 house keeping genes and definition of ST according the website

coreMLST typing: sequencing of 629 house keping genes and definition of cgST according the website

E coli :


Enterobacter spp.:

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